Good Examples Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God.
Such individuals act on impulse with little regard for the consequences of their actions. For example, showing no guilt for antisocial behavior. Robertson and Bowlby believe that short-term separation from an attachment figure leads to distress i.
They found three progressive stages of distress: The child cries, screams and protests angrily when the parent leaves. They will try to cling on to the parent to stop them leaving. If separation continues the child will start to engage with other people again.
They will reject the caregiver on their return and show strong signs of anger. This internal working model is a cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self, and others.
According to Bowlbythe primary caregiver acts as a prototype for future relationships via the internal working model. There are three main features of the internal working model: He believed that disruption of this primary relationship could lead to a higher incidence of juvenile delinquency, emotional difficulties, and antisocial behavior.
To test his hypothesis, he studied 44 adolescent juvenile delinquents in a child guidance clinic. To investigate the long-term effects of maternal deprivation on people in order to see whether delinquents have suffered deprivation.
According to the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis, breaking the maternal bond with the child during the early stages of its life is likely to have serious effects on its intellectual, social and emotional development.
Between and an opportunity sample of 88 children was selected from the clinic where Bowlby worked.
Of these, 44 were juvenile thieves and had been referred to him because of their stealing. The psychologist and social worker made separate reports. A psychiatrist Bowlby then conducted an initial interview with the child and accompanying parent e.
More than half of the juvenile thieves had been separated from their mothers for longer than six months during their first five years. In the control group only two had had such a separation.
None of the control group were affectionless psychopaths. Only 2 of the control group had experienced a prolonged separation in their first 5 years. He diagnosed this as a condition and called it Affectionless Psychopathy.
According to Bowlby, this condition involves a lack of emotional development, characterized by a lack of concern for others, lack of guilt and inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships. The supporting evidence that Bowlby provided was in the form of clinical interviews of, and retrospective data on, those who had and had not been separated from their primary caregiver.
This meant that Bowlby was asking the participants to look back and recall separations. These memories may not be accurate. Bowlby designed and conducted the experiment himself. This may have lead to experimenter bias. Particularly as he was responsible for making the diagnosis of affectionless psychopathy.
Another criticism of the 44 thieves study was that it concluded affectionless psychopathy was caused by maternal deprivation. This is correlational data and as such only shows a relationship between these two variables.
Indeed, other external variables, such as family conflict, parental income, education, etc. The study was vulnerable to researcher bias. Bowlby conducted the psychiatric assessments himself and made the diagnoses of Affectionless Psychopathy. Consequently, his findings may have unconsciously influenced by his own expectations.
This potentially undermines their validity.
They studied women who had lost mothers, through separation or death, before they were They found that loss of their mother through separation or death doubles the risk of depressive and anxiety disorders in adult women.
The rate of depression was the highest in women whose mothers had died before the child reached the age of 6.
Although Bowlby may not dispute that young children form multiple attachments, he still contends that the attachment to the mother is unique in that it is the first to appear and remains the strongest of all.
However, on both of these counts, the evidence seems to suggest otherwise. Rutter stresses that the quality of the attachment bond is the most important factor, rather than just deprivation in the critical period.
Bowlby used the term maternal deprivation to refer to the separation or loss of the mother as well as the failure to develop an attachment.Hi, I need to do a word essay on any one theory that is related to physical development in children. I have considered Jean Piaget’s theory but I can’t find much information on it except for his theory on cognitive development.
Theories of the Developing Child Essay. Tammy Mierop Theories of the Developing Child PSY Child and Adolescent Development Instructor: Julie Hacker December 6, Theories of the Developing Child The world in which we live is a very diverse place.
Theories of Child Development Essay Sample. An understanding of child development is essential; it allows us to fully appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social and educational growth that children go through from birth and into early adulthood.
Argumentative Essay Topics From Team At Essay Basics Click To See Examples Of Argumentative Writing. When it comes to essay writing professors usually supply students with topics to write pfmlures.comr, there are cases when a student is free to write on any topic he wishes.
The recent emergence of population-level databases linking data on place and children's developmental outcomes is a signal that future research may be able to shift towards an agenda that prioritizes policy-friendly questions about how, where, and for whom neighborhoods matter, rather than dwell on the question of whether they do (Mountain et al., , Guhn et al., ).
Psychoanalytic theory has also inspired a wealth of research on many aspects of emotional and social development.
Freud's () theory was the first to stress the influence of the early parent-child relationship on development, however, his perspective was eventually criticised.