Qigong activating both physical and mental can reach deeper, enhancing physical strength and Qi circulation.
Although a specific subject was not allocated for history in the curriculum, history learning undoubtedly constituted part of the first four courses, especially in the course of Chinese and Foreign Historiette Zhongwai Zhangguxue. The first version of course design for the Imperial University revealed the domi- nating principle of Zhongti xiyong, thus courses pertaining to Chinese learning were prioritized.
This curriculum also demon- strated marked influence of the traditional bibliographic system in which all books were placed in four categories: Confucian Classics, History, Philosophy and Literature. While effects of traditional elements were apparently reflected in the regulations, some new arrangements had also been introduced.
Courses concerning foreign historiettes were first included. Another significant modification was that courses concerning literature- categorized as the fourth in the traditional bibliographic system was relegated after those newly introduced but more practical courses, such as Mathematics, Science, Politics and Geography.
This can be viewed as the expression of Xiyong Western learning for practical application in the curriculum. The second regulations were drafted by Zhang Baixi, the minister in charge of educational affairs, in The regulations for this university, together with the other five regulations for the various schools, were known as Qingding Xuetang Zhang- cheng Imperially Sanctioned Regulations for Schools or Renying Xuezhi Educational Systems of According to the new regulations, the university should consist of: Politics and- 11See Guan Xiaohong, Shutu nengfou tonggui: See Guan Xiaohong, Shutu nengfou tonghui: Examination and candidate selection after the end of the Imperial Civil Service Examination Systempp.
Since a comprehen- sive school system was far from being established in the prov- inces, there was a dearth of qualified students for both the Graduate School and Undergraduate Departments. The Gradu- ate School, as stipulated in the regulations, should primarily focus on research, therefore a curriculum was unnecessary.
For the Undergraduate Departments, only a curriculum was out- lined there were no signs that it had been implemented. History courses in the Table 1, except for those under the School for Teachers, were predominately related to history of institutions and politics which were always the main themes in traditional historiography.
This design not only reflected the in- fluences of traditional historiography on the new education regu- lations, but also revealed the urgent demands for studying his- tory from a more practical perspective.
To the late Qing govern- ment, nothing was perhaps more crucial than conducting domes- tic reforms efficiently without causing instability, as well as deal- ing with relationships with foreign powers properly. As its sig- nificant feature and responsibility, study of History was supposed to provide knowledge and experiences for political dealings.
The regulations, however, were the first officially promulgated ones in which history curricula and teaching contents for different schools were clearly prescribed. Upon receiving the decree, Zhang Zhidong and his colleagues consulted for the Japanese and Western educational systems in drafting new regulations for schools at various levels.
The higher education, according to the new regulations, was to be divided into two stages: The Graduate School should mainly concentrate on research, hence no course should be offered for this stage which normally lasted five years.
The Undergraduate Division was to consist of eight schools in which forty-six majors were included, 17among them the major of Chinese history and world history were established under the School of Arts. Course design for the two majors can be sum- marized as Tables 2 and 3.
In comparison with history courses in the previous regula- tions, the Educational Systems of provided a much more comprehensive design. Perhaps the most obvious modification was that courses for majors in Chinese history and world his- tory were designed separately. Other significant improvements in this proposal include: First of all, the designers were aware that courses for majors in Chinese history and world history should not be entirely separated.
Therefore a combination of main courses and com- plementary courses was adopted. This required students, espe- cially for those who majored in Chinese history, to study his- tory from a comparative and comprehensive perspective instead of merely focusing on the political history of China as they previously did.
More importantly, familiarization with new history theory and paradigm through reading of writings or translations on world history was of great importance for the modern transformation of Chinese traditional historiography.Nguyen, KM , 'Financial management and profitability of small and medium enterprises', DBA thesis, Southern Cross University, descriptive findings of financial management practices, financial characteristics and SME applications of the research findings are indicated for the financial management practitioners.
The thesis provides. Financial Management, Jane Churchouse Inclusion - What Deaf Pupils Think, - Humanitarian Law in a Real World Setting, E. Amanda, Ph.D. Boutot, Matt, Ph.D. Tincani X The Business Hen - .
PhD IN FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING Taught entirely in English on a multi-campus basis THE PhD IN FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING IS A FOUR-YEAR PROGRAMME AS PART OF THE ACTIVITIES. TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES Chapter II. r;n. Appendices - _u_ - " " ".. " " THE BACKGROUND OF.
Compa:isons with the graduates show an increase in the percentaot: entering omputer programming, a decrease in those pursuing careers as accountants, auditors, and other financial officers, and increases in those entering occupations related to management and administration, social work, and occupations in welfare and community services.
Acknowledgements This thesis studies behavioral characteristics of human beings and how they influence the risk taking decisions of individuals in financial markets.