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History[ edit ] Antecedent theoretical developments[ edit ] The Human Resources field evolved first in 18th century in Europe. It built on a simple idea by Robert Owen and Charles Babbage during the industrial revolution.
These men concluded that people were crucial to the success of an organization. They expressed the thought that the well-being of employees led to perfect work; without healthy workers, the organization would not survive.
Taylor explored what he termed "scientific management" others later referred to "Taylorism"striving to improve economic efficiency in manufacturing jobs.
He eventually focused on one of the principal inputs into the manufacturing process—labor—sparking inquiry[ by whom? This movement, on both sides of the Atlantic, built on the research of Elton Mayo and others to document through the Hawthorne studies — and other studies how stimuli, unrelated to financial compensation and working conditions, could yield more productive workers.
Roosevelt and the New Deal had transformed the employer-employee relationship, and the discipline became formalized as " industrial and labor relations ". Corporations began viewing employees as assets. Likewise, other terms sometimes used to describe the field include "organizational management", "manpower management", "talent management", "personnel management", and simply "people management".
In popular media[ edit ] Several popular media productions have depicted HR. Business function[ edit ] Dave Ulrich lists the functions of HR as: HR also ensures compliance with employment and labor lawswhich differ by geography, and often oversees health, safety, and security.
Consequently, HR, usually through representatives, engages in lobbying efforts with governmental agencies e. Human Resource Management has four basic functions: Staffing is the recruitment and selection of potential employees, done through interviewing, applications, networking, etc.
Training and development is the next step in a continuous process of training and developing competent and adapted employees. Here, motivation is seen as key to keeping employees highly productive. This function can include employee benefits, performance appraisals and rewards.
Some businesses globalize and form more diverse teams. HR departments have the role of making sure that these teams can function and that people can communicate across cultures and across borders. The discipline may also engage in mobility management, especially for expatriates ; and it is frequently involved in the merger and acquisition process.
HR is generally viewed as a support function to the business, helping to minimize costs and reduce risk. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business.
To train practitioners for the professioninstitutions of higher education, professional associationsand companies have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function.
Academic and practitioner organizations may produce field-specific publications. Careers[ edit ] There are half a million HR practitioners in the United States and millions more worldwide. Generalists support employees directly with their questions, grievances, and work on a range of projects within the organization.
They "may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require an extensive range of knowledge. Some practitioners will spend an entire career as either a generalist or a specialist while others will obtain experiences from each and choose a path later.
The position of HR Manager has been chosen as one of the best jobs in the USA, with a 4 ranking by CNN Money in and a 20 ranking by the same organization indue to its pay, personal satisfaction, job security, future growth, and benefit to society.
Many professors conduct research on topics that fall within the HR domain, such as financial compensationrecruitmentand training. Virtual human resources[ edit ] Technology has a significant impact on human resources practices.
Human resources is transitioning to a more technology-based profession[ when? E-Recruiting Recruiting has mostly been influenced by information technology. HR professionals were not able to post a job in more than one location and did not have access to millions of people, causing the lead time of new hires to be drawn out and tiresome.
With the use of e-recruiting tools, HR professionals can post jobs and track applicants for thousands of jobs in various locations all in one place. Interview feedback, background and drug tests, and onboarding can all be viewed online.
This helps the HR professionals keep track of all of their open jobs and applicants in a way that is faster and easier than before. E-recruiting also helps eliminate limitations of geographic location. In addition to recruiting portals, HR professionals have a social media presence that allows them to attract employees through the internet.
Forms must be on file for a considerable period of time. The use of Human Resources Information Systems HRIS has made it possible for companies to store and retrieve files in an electronic format for people within the organization to access when needed.
This eliminates thousands of files and frees up space within the office.Once you order a custom written essay, our managers will assign your order to the most well-suited writer, who has the best skills and experience for preparing your specific assignment.
Operations management is a field that can, at times, be misunderstood because of its multidisciplinary nature.
However, its functions form the lynchpin of businesses the world over and success can often rest squarely on its shoulders. Vol. 46, No. 2, Summer ARTICLES. Trafficking, Prostitution, and Inequality Catharine A. MacKinnon. A Free Irresponsible Press: Wikileaks and the Battle over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate.
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Law and politics United States government Executive branch U.S. Presidents. Vol. 46, No. 2, Summer ARTICLES. Trafficking, Prostitution, and Inequality Catharine A.
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